Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Critical Appraisal

Information and resources on how to assess the quality and relevance of articles


BMJ How to read a paper. A series of papers on how to read and critique different types of research articles.

BMJ Statistical notes series. A series of explanatory notes on interpreting statistics in medical research. Topics include validating scales, correlation, probabilities, bootstrap resampling and many more. To access full text, go to  Find an article for your institution at the library webpage, then enter 'Statistics notes'.

University of Nottingham - making sense of the numbers (AudioVisual series)

Confidence intervals 

Numbers needed to treat and numbers needed to harm 

Relative risk reduction and absolute risk reduction 

Sensitivity and Specificity 

Surrogate Outcomes

Determining the clinical importance of trial results



Catalogue of bias - descriptions of biases that can affect studies and strategies to prevent bias occurring. Supported by Oxford CEBM

Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research - article



How to Use the Evidence. Handbook on how to use research evidence when preparing clinical guidelines (PDF). National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia).

Literature Evaluation and Critique. (Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy Research: Skills and Strategies. 2020, Book chapter.) RMH, RWH & PMCC staff only. If login fails access via Library Catalogue.